Validation References

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If you are interested in reading more about the academic foundations upon which our concept has been built, below is a selection of the key papers.
1.  EMG-based facial gesture recognition through versatile elliptic basis function neural network
Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Astaraki, M., Noor, M. BioMedical Engineering Online. 2013; 12: 73 Tag: Human-computer interaction
2. Facial neuromuscular signal classification by means of least square support vector machine for MuCI
Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Astaraki, M., Noor, M. BioMedical Engineering Online. 2013; 12: 73 Tag: Human-computer interaction
3. Human facial neural activities and gesture recognition for machine-interfacing applications
Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Tan, TS., Ismail, K., Ali, J., Dee-Uam, C., Pavaganun, C., Yupapin, PP International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2011; 6: 3461–3472 Tag: Human-computer interaction
4. Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration
Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Tan, TS., Kamarulafizam,  I.Journal of Computer Science. 2011; 7 (9) : 1407-1415 Tag: Human-computer interaction
5. Robust Facial Expression Recognition for MuCI: A Comprehensive Neuromuscular Signal Analysis
Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Ting, CM., Astaraki, M., Noor, M. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. 2016; PP (99 ): 1 Tag: Human-computer interaction
6. Time-Frequency Facial Gestures EMG Analysis using Bilinear Distribution
Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Kamarulafizam, I., Noor, M. IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications (ICSIPA). 2015; 169-173 Tag: Human-computer interaction
7. Facial Gesture Recognition Using Two-Channel Bio-Sensors Configuration and Fuzzy Classifier: A Pilot Study
Hamedi, M., Rezazadeh, IM., Firoozabadi, M. International Conference on Electrical, Control and Computer Engineering. 2011; 338-340 Tag: Human-computer interaction
8. Comparison of Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks for EMG-based Facial Gesture Recognition
Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Astaraki, M., Noor, M., Harris, AR.The 8th International Conference on Robotic, Vision, Signal Processing & Power Applications. 2014; 291 : 285-294 Tag: Human-computer interaction
9. From Sound to Significance: Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music
Juslin, P., Barradas, G., Eerola, T. The American Journal of Psychology. 2015; 128 (3) Tag: Psychology
10. Learning When Serious: Psychophysiological Evaluation of a Technology-Enhanced Learning Game
Cowley, B., Fantato, M., Jennett, C., Ruskov, M., Ravaja, N. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 2014; 17 (1) Tag: Human-computer interaction
11. Motivated Selective Attention During Political Ad Processing: The Dynamic Interplay Between Emotional Ad Content and Candidate Evaluation
Wang, Z., Morey, A.C., Srivastava, J. Communication Research. 2014;  41 (1) Tag: Media response
12. Purchase Behavior and Psychophysiological Responses to Different Price Levels
Somervuori, O., Ravaja, N. Psychology & Marketing. 2013; 30 (6) Tag: Psychology
13. Sociality of Facial Expressions in Immersive Virtual Environments: A Facial EMG Study
Philipp, M. C., Storrs, K.R., Vanman, E.J. Biological Psychology. 2012; 91 (1) Tag: Human-computer interaction
14. Which Broadcast Medium Better Drives Engagement?
Peacock, J, Purvis, S, Hazlett, Richard L. Journal of Advertising Research. 2011; 51 (4) Tag: Media response
15. Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing
Walla, P., Brenner, G., Koller, M. Plos ONE. 2011; 6 (11) Tag: Psychology
16. Simultaneous Acquisition of Corrugator Electromyography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A New Method for Objectively Measuring Affect and Neural Activity Concurrently
Heller, A.S., Greischar, L.L., Honor, A., Anderle, M. J., Davidson, R.J. Neuroimage. 2011; 58 (3) : 930-934 Tag: Healthcare
17. Smile to See the Forest: Facially Expressed Positive Emotions Broaden Cognition
Johnson, K.J., Waugh, C.E., Fredrickson, B.L. Cognition & Emotion. 2010; 24 (2) Tag: Psychology
18. An Electromyographic Investigation of the Impact of Task Relevance on Facial Mimicry
Canon, Peter. R., Hayes, A.E., Tipper, S Cognition and Emotion. 2009; 23 (5) Tag: Psychology
19. A Facial Electromyographic Investigation of Affective Contrast
Larsen, T., Norris, J. Pyschophysiology. 2009; 46 (4): 831–842 Tag: Healthcare
20. Analysis of Neurophysiological Reactions to Advertising Stimuli by Means of EEG and Galvanic Skin Response Measures
Ohme, R., Reykowska, D., Wiener, D., Choromanska, A. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics.  2009; 2 (1): 21-31 Tag: Psychology
21. Valence Lasts Longer than Arousal: Persistence of Induced Moods as Assessed by Psychophysiological Measures
Gomez, P., Zimmerman, P.G., Guttormsen, S., Danuser, B. Journal of Psychophysiology. 2015; 23: 7-17 Tag: Psychology
22. Enhanced Facial EMG Activity in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions
Wataru, S., Fujimura, T., Suzuki, N. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 2008; 70 (1): 70–74 Tag: Media response
23. Simultaneous Recording of EEG and Facial Muscle Reactions during Spontaneous Emotional Mimicry
Achaibou, A., Pourtois, G., Schwartz, S., Vuillemier, P. Neuropsychologia. 2008; 46 (4): 1104–1113 Tag: Psychology
24. The Psychophysiology of James Bond: Phasic Emotional Responses to Violent Video Game Events
Ravaja, N., Turpeinen, M., Saari, T., Puttonen, S., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L. Emotion. 2008; 8 (1): 114-20 Tag: Psychology
25. Engagement, Emotions, and the Power of Radio – A New Study of How Radio Affects Consumer Emotions
Conducted by Gallup Radio Ad Effectiveness Lab (Radio Ad Lab). 2007 Tag: Human-computer interaction
26. More Than Mere Mimicry? The Influence of Emotion on Rapid Facial Reactions to Faces
Moody, J., McIntosh, N., Mann, J., Weisser, R. Emotion. 2007; 7 (2): 447– 457 Tag: Psychology
27. Similar Facial Electromyographic Responses to Faces, Voices and Body Expressions
Magnée, J., Stekelenburg, J., Kemner, C., de Gelder, B.Neuroreport. 2007; 18 (4): 369-72 Tag: Psychology
28. Measuring Emotional Valence to Understand the User’s Experience of Software
Hazlett, L., Benedeck, J. International Journal of Human-Computer
29. Similar Facial Electromyographic Responses to Faces, Voices, and Body Expressions
Magnée, J., Stekelenburg, J., Kemner, C., de Gelder, B. Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychology Neuroreport. 2007; 18 (4): 369-372 Tag: Psychology
30. Electromyographic Responses to Static and Dynamic Avatar Emotional Facial Expressions
Weyers, P., Helberger, A., Hefele, C., Pauli, P. Psychophysiology. 2006; 43 (5): 450–453 Tag: Human-computer interaction
31. Computing Emotion Awareness through Facial Electromyography
Broek, L., Schut, H., Westerink, J.H.D., Herk Jan van, Tuinenbreijer, K  Computer Science (Human-Computer Interaction). 2006; 9379: 51-62 Tag: Human-computer interaction
32. Study of Posed Emotion in Facial EMG Asymmetry
Zhou, R., Hu, S. Perceptual & Motor Skills. 2006; 102 (2): 430-434 Tag: Psychology
33. Real-time Estimation of Emotional Experiences from Facial Expressions
Partala, T. Interacting with Computers. 2006; 18 (2): 208-226 Tag:  Human-computer interaction
34. The Facial Pattern of Disgust, Appetence, Excited Joy and Relaxed Joy: An improved Facial EMG Study
Wolf, K., Mass, R., Ingenbleek, T., Kiefer, F., Naber, D., Wiedemann, K.  Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 2005; 46 (5): 403-409 Tag: Psychology
35. The Review of Applications and Measurements in Facial Electromyography
Huang, C. N., Chen, C.H., Chung, H. Y. Journal of Medical & Biological Engineering. 2005; 25 (1): 15-20 Tag: Human-computer interaction
36. Suboptimal Exposure to Facial Expressions: When Viewing Video Messages from a Small Screen: Effects in Emotion, Attention and Memory
Ravaja, N., Kallinen, K., Saari, T. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2004; 10 (2): 120-13 Tag: Human-computer interaction
37. Effects of Positive and Negative Affect on Electromyographic Activity over Zygomaticus Major and Corrugator Supercilii
Larsen, J. T., Norris, C. J., Cacioppo, J.T. Psychophysiology. 2003; 40 (5): 776-785 Tag: Psychology
38. Presence-Related Influences of a Small Talking Facial Image on Psychophysiological Measures of Emotion and Attention
Ravaja, N. Proceedings of the 5th Annual International Workshop Presence. 2002 Tag: Psychology
39. The Effects of Message Valence and Listener Arousal on Attention, Memory and Facial Muscular Responses to Radio Advertisements
Boll, P. D., Lang, A., Potter, R.F. Communication Research. 2001; 28 (5): 627-651 Tag: Psychology
40. Mind at Ease Puts a Smile on the Face: Psychophysiological Evidence That Processing Facilitation Elicits Positive Affect
Winkielman, P., Cacioppo, J.T. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 2001; 81 (6): 989-1000 Tag: Psychology
41.Emotional Response to Television Commercials:Facial EMG vs. Self Report
Hazlett, Richard, Hazlett, Sasha Yassky Journal of Advertising Research. 1999; 39: 7-24 Tag: Psychology
42. Facial Electromyographic Responses to Vocal Affect Expressions
Hietanen, Jari K. Psychophysiology. 1998; 35 (5) : 530-536 Tag: Psychology
43. Facial and Jaw-elevator EMG Activity in Relation to Changes in Performance Level During a Sustained Information Task
Waterink, W.,  Boxtel, A. Biological Psychology. 1994; 37 (3) : 183–198 Tag: Psychology
44. Muscle Tension in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Elevated Muscle Tonus or Agitated Movement?
Hazlett, R.L., McLeon, D.M., Hoehn-Saric, R. Psychophysiology. 1994; 31 (2): 189–195 Tag: Healthcare
45. On the Distinct Meaning of Smiles and Frowns
Pope, Lois K., Smith, Craig Cognition and Emotion. 1994; 8 (1) : 65-72 Tag: Psychology
46. Looking at Pictures: Affective, Facial, Visceral, and Behavioral Reactions
Lang, Peter J., Greenwald, Mark, Bradley, Margaret, Hamm, Alfons Psychophysiology. May 1993; 30 (3) : 261–273 Tag: Psychology
47. Microexpressive Facial Actions as a Function of Affective Stimuli: Replication and Extension
Cacioppo, J.T., Bush, L.K., & Tassinary, L.G. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. October 1992; 18 (5) : 515-526 Tag: Psychology
47. Microexpressive Facial Actions as a Function of Affective Stimuli: Replication and Extension
Cacioppo, J.T., Bush, L.K., & Tassinary, L.G. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. October 1992; 18 (5) : 515-526 Tag: Psychology
48. Unobservable Facial Actions and Emotions
Tassinary, Louis G. and Cacioppo, John T. Psychological Science. January 1992; 3 (1) ; 28-33 Tag: Psychology
49. Facial Electromyography and Emotional Reactions
Dimberg, U. Psychophysiology. 1990; 27(5) : 481-94 Tag: Psychology
50. Gender Differences in Facial Reactions to Facial Expressions
Dimberg, U. Biological Psychology. April 1990; 30 (2) : 151–159 Tag: Psychology
51. Facial Electromyography and the Experience of Emotion
Dimberg, U. Journal of Psychophysiology. 1988; 2(4) : 277-282 Tag: Psychology
52. Facial Electromyography, Fear Relevance and the Experience of Stimuli
Dimberg, U., Thell, Steve Journal of Psychophysiology. 1988; 2 (3) : 213-219 Tag: Psychology
53. Specific Forms of Facial EMG Response Index Emotions During an Interview: From Darwin to the Continuous Flow Hypothesis of Affect-laden Information Processing
Cacioppo, John T., Martzke, Jeffrey, Petty, Richard, Tassinary, Louis Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Apr 1988; 54(4) : 592-604 Tag: Psychology
54. Emotional Responding Following Experimental Manipulation of Facial Electromyographic Activity
McCanne, Thomas R.,  Anderson, Judith A. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Apr 1987; 52 (4) : 759-768 Tag: Psychology
55. Electromyographic Activity Over Facial Muscle Regions Can Differentiate the Valence and Intensity of Affective Reactions
Cacioppo, John T., Petty, Richard E., Losch, Mary E., Kim, Hai Sook Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Feb 1986; 50 (2) : 260-268 Tag: Psychology
56. Facial Reactions to Facial Expressions
Dimberg, U. Psychophysiology. 1982; 19 (6) : 643-647 Tag: Psychology
57. Relationships Between Facial Electromyography and Subjective Experience During Affective Imagery
Brown, Serena-Lynn, Schwartz, Gary E. Biological Psychology. 1980; 11 (1) : 49-62 Tag: Psychology
58. Facial Muscle Patterning and Subjective Experience During Affective Imagery: Sex Differences
Brown, Serena-Lynn, Schwartz, Gary E., Ahern, Geoffrey L. Psychophysiology 1980; 17 (1) : 75–82 Tag: Human-computer interaction