Validation References

If you are interested in reading more about the academic foundations upon which our concept has been built, below is a selection of the key papers.

1.EMG-based facial gesture recognition through versatile elliptic basis function neural network   Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Astaraki, M., Noor, M. BioMedical Engineering Online. 2013; 12: 73 Tag: Human-computer interaction

2. Facial neuromuscular signal classification by means of least square support vector machine for MuCI Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Astaraki, M., Noor, M Applied Soft Computing. 2015; 30: 1-822 Tag: Human-computer interaction

3. Human facial neural activities and gesture recognition for machine-interfacing applications Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Tan, TS., Ismail, K., Ali, J., Dee-Uam, C., Pavaganun, C., Yupapin, PP International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2011; 6: 3461–3472 Tag: Human-computer interaction

4. Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Tan, TS., Kamarulafizam,  I.Journal of Computer Science. 2011; 7 (9) : 1407-1415 Tag: Human-computer interaction

5. Robust Facial Expression Recognition for MuCI: A Comprehensive Neuromuscular Signal Analysis Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Ting, CM., Astaraki, M., Noor, M. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. 2016; PP (99 ): 1 Tag: Human-computer interaction

6. Time-Frequency Facial Gestures EMG Analysis using Bilinear Distribution Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Kamarulafizam, I., Noor, M.
IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications (ICSIPA). 2015; 169-173 Tag: Human-computer interaction

7. Facial Gesture Recognition Using Two-Channel Bio-Sensors Configuration and Fuzzy Classifier: A Pilot Study Hamedi, M., Rezazadeh, IM., Firoozabadi, M.
International Conference on Electrical, Control and Computer Engineering. 2011; 338-340 Tag: Human-computer interaction

8. Comparison of Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks for EMG-based Facial Gesture Recognition
Hamedi, M., Salleh, SH., Astaraki, M., Noor, M., Harris, AR.The 8th International Conference on Robotic, Vision, Signal Processing & Power Applications. 2014; 291 : 285-294 Tag: Human-computer interaction

9. From Sound to Significance: Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music
Juslin, P., Barradas, G., Eerola, T. The American Journal of Psychology. 2015; 128 (3) Tag: Psychology

10. Learning When Serious: Psychophysiological Evaluation of a Technology-Enhanced Learning Game Cowley, B., Fantato, M., Jennett, C., Ruskov, M., Ravaja, N.
Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 2014; 17 (1) Tag: Human-computer interaction

11. Motivated Selective Attention During Political Ad Processing: The Dynamic Interplay Between Emotional Ad Content and Candidate Evaluation Wang, Z., Morey, A.C., Srivastava, J. Communication Research. 2014;  41 (1) Tag: Media response

12. Purchase Behavior and Psychophysiological Responses to Different Price Levels Somervuori, O., Ravaja, N. Psychology & Marketing. 2013; 30 (6) Tag: Psychology

13. Sociality of Facial Expressions in Immersive Virtual Environments: A Facial EMG Study Philipp, M. C., Storrs, K.R., Vanman, E.J. Biological Psychology. 2012; 91 (1) Tag: Human-computer interaction

14. Which Broadcast Medium Better Drives Engagement? Peacock, J, Purvis, S, Hazlett, Richard L. Journal of Advertising Research. 2011; 51 (4) Tag: Media response

15. Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing Walla, P., Brenner, G., Koller, M. Plos ONE. 2011; 6 (11) Tag: Psychology

16. Simultaneous Acquisition of Corrugator Electromyography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A New Method for Objectively Measuring Affect and Neural Activity Concurrently Heller, A.S., Greischar, L.L., Honor, A., Anderle, M. J., Davidson, R.J. Neuroimage. 2011; 58 (3) : 930-934 Tag: Healthcare

17. Smile to See the Forest: Facially Expressed Positive Emotions Broaden Cognition Johnson, K.J., Waugh, C.E., Fredrickson, B.L. Cognition & Emotion. 2010; 24 (2) Tag: Psychology

18. An Electromyographic Investigation of the Impact of Task Relevance on Facial Mimicry Canon, Peter. R., Hayes, A.E., Tipper, S Cognition and Emotion. 2009; 23 (5) Tag: Psychology

19. A Facial Electromyographic Investigation of Affective Contrast Larsen, T., Norris, J. Pyschophysiology. 2009; 46 (4): 831–842 Tag: Healthcare

20. Analysis of Neurophysiological Reactions to Advertising Stimuli by Means of EEG and Galvanic Skin Response Measures
Ohme, R., Reykowska, D., Wiener, D., Choromanska, A. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics.  2009; 2 (1): 21-31 Tag: Psychology

21. Valence Lasts Longer than Arousal: Persistence of Induced Moods as Assessed by Psychophysiological Measures Gomez, P., Zimmerman, P.G., Guttormsen, S., Danuser, B. Journal of Psychophysiology. 2015; 23: 7-17 Tag: Psychology

22. Enhanced Facial EMG Activity in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions Wataru, S., Fujimura, T., Suzuki, N. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 2008; 70 (1): 70–74 Tag: Media response

23. Simultaneous Recording of EEG and Facial Muscle Reactions during Spontaneous Emotional Mimicry Achaibou, A., Pourtois, G., Schwartz, S., Vuillemier, P. Neuropsychologia. 2008; 46 (4): 1104–1113 Tag: Psychology

24. The Psychophysiology of James Bond: Phasic Emotional Responses to Violent Video Game Events Ravaja, N., Turpeinen, M., Saari, T., Puttonen, S., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L. Emotion. 2008; 8 (1): 114-20 Tag: Psychology

25. Engagement, Emotions, and the Power of Radio – A New Study of How Radio Affects Consumer EmotionsConducted by Gallup Radio Ad Effectiveness Lab (Radio Ad Lab). 2007 Tag: Human-computer interaction

26. More Than Mere Mimicry? The Influence of Emotion on Rapid Facial Reactions to Faces Moody, J., McIntosh, N., Mann, J., Weisser, R.
Emotion. 2007; 7 (2): 447– 457 Tag: Psychology

27. Similar Facial Electromyographic Responses to Faces, Voices and Body Expressions. Magnée, J., Stekelenburg, J., Kemner, C., de Gelder, B.
Neuroreport. 2007; 18 (4): 369-72 Tag: Psychology

28. Measuring Emotional Valence to Understand the User’s Experience of Software Hazlett, L., Benedeck, J. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 2007; 65 (4): 306–314 Tag: Human-computer interaction

29. Similar Facial Electromyographic Responses to Faces, Voices, and Body Expressions Magnée, J., Stekelenburg, J., Kemner, C., de Gelder, B. Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychology Neuroreport. 2007; 18 (4): 369-372 Tag: Psychology

30. Electromyographic Responses to Static and Dynamic Avatar Emotional Facial Expressions Weyers, P., Helberger, A., Hefele, C., Pauli, P. Psychophysiology. 2006; 43 (5): 450–453 Tag: Human-computer interaction

31. Computing Emotion Awareness through Facial Electromyography Broek, L., Schut, H., Westerink, J.H.D., Herk Jan van, Tuinenbreijer, K  Computer Science (Human-Computer Interaction). 2006; 9379: 51-62 Tag: Human-computer interaction

32. Study of Posed Emotion in Facial EMG Asymmetry
Zhou, R., Hu, S. Perceptual & Motor Skills. 2006; 102 (2): 430-434 Tag: Psychology

33. Real-time Estimation of Emotional Experiences from Facial Expressions Partala, T. Interacting with Computers. 2006; 18 (2): 208-226 Tag:  Human-computer interaction

34. The Facial Pattern of Disgust, Appetence, Excited Joy and Relaxed Joy: An improved Facial EMG Study Wolf, K., Mass, R., Ingenbleek, T., Kiefer, F., Naber, D., Wiedemann, K.  Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 2005; 46 (5): 403-409 Tag: Psychology

35. The Review of Applications and Measurements in Facial Electromyography Huang, C. N., Chen, C.H., Chung, H. Y.
Journal of Medical & Biological Engineering. 2005; 25 (1): 15-20 Tag: Human-computer interaction

36. Suboptimal Exposure to Facial Expressions: When Viewing Video Messages from a Small Screen: Effects in Emotion, Attention and Memory Ravaja, N., Kallinen, K., Saari, T. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2004; 10 (2): 120-13 Tag: Human-computer interaction

37. Effects of Positive and Negative Affect on Electromyographic Activity over Zygomaticus Major and Corrugator Supercilii Larsen, J. T., Norris, C. J., Cacioppo, J.T. Psychophysiology. 2003; 40 (5): 776-785 Tag: Psychology

38. Presence-Related Influences of a Small Talking Facial Image on Psychophysiological Measures of Emotion and Attention Ravaja, N. Proceedings of the 5th Annual International Workshop Presence. 2002 Tag: Psychology

39. The Effects of Message Valence and Listener Arousal on Attention, Memory and Facial Muscular Responses to Radio Advertisements. Boll, P. D., Lang, A., Potter, R.F. Communication Research. 2001; 28 (5): 627-651 Tag: Psychology

40. Mind at Ease Puts a Smile on the Face: Psychophysiological Evidence That Processing Facilitation Elicits Positive Affect
Winkielman, P., Cacioppo, J.T. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 2001; 81 (6): 989-1000 Tag: Psychology

41.Emotional Response to Television Commercials:Facial EMG vs. Self Report Hazlett, Richard, Hazlett, Sasha Yassky Journal of Advertising Research. 1999; 39: 7-24 Tag: Psychology

42. Facial Electromyographic Responses to Vocal Affect Expressions Hietanen, Jari K. Psychophysiology. 1998; 35 (5) : 530-536 Tag: Psychology

43. Facial and Jaw-elevator EMG Activity in Relation to Changes in Performance Level During a Sustained Information Task Waterink, W.,  Boxtel, A. Biological Psychology. 1994; 37 (3) : 183–198 Tag: Psychology

44. Muscle Tension in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Elevated Muscle Tonus or Agitated Movement? Hazlett, R.L., McLeon, D.M., Hoehn-Saric, R.
Psychophysiology. 1994; 31 (2): 189–195 Tag: Healthcare

45. On the Distinct Meaning of Smiles and Frowns Pope, Lois K., Smith, Craig Cognition and Emotion. 1994; 8 (1) : 65-72 Tag: Psychology

46. Looking at Pictures: Affective, Facial, Visceral, and Behavioral Reactions Lang, Peter J., Greenwald, Mark, Bradley, Margaret, Hamm, Alfons Psychophysiology. May 1993; 30 (3) : 261–273 Tag: Psychology

47. Microexpressive Facial Actions as a Function of Affective Stimuli: Replication and Extension Cacioppo, J.T., Bush, L.K., & Tassinary, L.G. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. October 1992; 18 (5) : 515-526 Tag: Psychology

48. Unobservable Facial Actions and Emotions Tassinary, Louis G. and Cacioppo, John T. Psychological Science. January 1992; 3 (1) ; 28-33 Tag: Psychology

49. Facial Electromyography and Emotional Reactions
Dimberg, U. Psychophysiology. 1990; 27(5) : 481-94 Tag: Psychology

50. Gender Differences in Facial Reactions to Facial Expressions Dimberg, U. Biological Psychology. April 1990; 30 (2) : 151–159 Tag: Psychology

51. Facial Electromyography and the Experience of Emotion Dimberg, U. Journal of Psychophysiology. 1988; 2(4) : 277-282 Tag: Psychology

52. Facial Electromyography, Fear Relevance and the Experience of Stimuli Dimberg, U., Thell, Steve Journal of Psychophysiology. 1988; 2 (3) : 213-219 Tag: Psychology

53. Specific Forms of Facial EMG Response Index Emotions During an Interview: From Darwin to the Continuous Flow Hypothesis of Affect-laden Information Processing Cacioppo, John T., Martzke, Jeffrey, Petty, Richard, Tassinary, Louis Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Apr 1988; 54(4) : 592-604 Tag: Psychology

54. Emotional Responding Following Experimental Manipulation of Facial Electromyographic Activity McCanne, Thomas R.,  Anderson, Judith A. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Apr 1987; 52 (4) : 759-768 Tag: Psychology

55. Electromyographic Activity Over Facial Muscle Regions Can Differentiate the Valence and Intensity of Affective Reactions Cacioppo, John T., Petty, Richard E., Losch, Mary E., Kim, Hai Sook Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Feb 1986; 50 (2) : 260-268 Tag: Psychology

56. Facial Reactions to Facial Expressions Dimberg, U.
Psychophysiology. 1982; 19 (6) : 643-647 Tag: Psychology

57. Relationships Between Facial Electromyography and Subjective Experience During Affective Imagery Brown, Serena-Lynn, Schwartz, Gary E. Biological Psychology. 1980; 11 (1) : 49-62 Tag: Psychology

58. Facial Muscle Patterning and Subjective Experience During Affective Imagery: Sex Differences Brown, Serena-Lynn, Schwartz, Gary E., Ahern, Geoffrey L. Psychophysiology 1980; 17 (1) : 75–82 Tag: Human-computer interaction

About us

Objective measures of
emotional responses and behaviour


  • Emteq Ltd.
    Sussex Innovation Centre,
    Brighton BN1 9SB,
    United Kingdom